The Person

Is subjective and unique, not objective, predictable and calculating.
• Has distinct human needs, which are biophysical, psychophysical, psychosocial and interpersonal.
• Is to be valued, cared for, respected,nurtured, understood and assisted.
• Is a functioning whole, there is no division among the mind, body and spirit (George/2002).
• Is directly influenced by their external environment.
• Has to be taken cared for, respected, nurtured, understood and assisted.
• Fully functional integrated self. “Greater than and different from, the sum of his or her parts”.

The Environment

Is crucial to the holistic healing (mental, physical, social, emotional, spiritual, developmental, protective,supportive environments), which is conducive to a patients health and wellbeing.
• Affects both patients and nurses within a caring-healing model. (Bernick, 2004).
• Is usually designed as a home-like environment but these “systems still fall short as healing spaces”(Watson/1999).
• Contains “noise, privacy, light,access to nature, color, space and smells that can have an impact on the caring-healing process” (Watson/1999).
Caring and Nursing have existed in every society. A caring attitude is not transmitted from generation to generation. It is transmitted by the culture of the profession as a unique way of coping with its environment .


Is viewed holistically, as the unity between the physical, social, mental and spiritual self, with all parts working together in harmony and functioning to their full capacity.
• Is a perceived by the patient and is influenced by their own unique life experiences (Bernick/2004).
• Entirely includes an individual's physical, social, aesthetic and moral realms, not just their behaviour and physiology (George/2002).
• Watson believes that there are other factors that are needed to be included in the WHO definition of health.
She added the following three elements:
1. A high level of overall physical,mental and social functioning
2. A general adaptive-maintenance level of daily functioning
3. The absence of illness (or the presence of efforts that leads its absence)


Is a caring, meaningful and harmonic connective bond that is shared between the nurse and the patient (George/2002).
• Is providing caring, professional and thoughtful interactions to restore and promote holistic health and to prevent illness.
• Is a holistic practice that is complementary to medicine.
“Nursing is concerned with promoting health,preventing illness, caring for the sick and restoring health”.
• It focuses on health promotion and treatment of disease. Watson believes that holistic health care is central to the practice of caring in nursing.
• She defines nursing as…..
A human science of persons and human health-illness experiences that are mediated by professional, personal, scientific, esthetic and ethical human transactions”.


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