THE SEVEN ASSUMPTIONS
Caring science encompasses a humanitarian, human science orientation to human caring processes, phenomena and experiences. Caring science includes arts and humanities as well as science. A caring science perspective is grounded in a relational ontology of being-in-relation, and a world view of unity and connectedness of All. Transpersonal Caring acknowledges unity of life and connections that move in concentric circles of caring - from individual, to others, to community, to world, to Planet Earth, to the universe.
Caring science is an evolving new field that is grounded in the discipline of nursing and evolving nursing science, but more recently includes other fields and disciplines in the Academy, for example, Women/Feminist studies, Education, Ecology, Peace Studies, Philosophy/ Ethics, Arts and Humanities, Mindbodyspirit Medicine. As such, caring science is rapidly becoming an Interdisciplinary or Transdisciplinary field of study. It has relevance to all the health, education, and human service fields and professions.
The ideas as originally developed, as well as in the current evolving phase (see Watson, 1999), provide others a chance to assess, critique and see where, how, or if, one may locate self within the framework or the emerging ideas in relation to their own "theories and philosophies of professional nursing and/or caring practice."
If one chooses to use the caring perspective as theory, model, philosophy, ethic or ethos for transforming self and practice, or self and system, the following questions may help (Watson, 1996, p. 161): Is there congruence between (a) the values and major concepts and beliefs in the model and the given nurse, group, system, organization, curriculum, population needs, clinical administrative setting, or other entity that is considering interacting with the caring model to transform and/or improve practice? What is one’s view of human? And what it means to be human, caring, healing, becoming, growing, transforming, etc. For example: In words of Teilhard de Chardin: "Are we humans having a spiritual experience, or are we spiritual beings having a human experience?" Such thinking in regard to this philosophical question can guide one’s worldview and help to clarify where one may locate self within the caring framework. Are those interacting and engaging in the model interested in their own personal evolution? Are they committed to seeking authentic connections and caring-healing relationships with self and others? Are those involved "conscious" of their caring-caritas or non-caring consciousness and intentionally in a given moment and at an individual and system level? Are they interested and committed to expanding their caring consciousness and actions to self, other, environment, nature and wider universe? Are those working within the model interested in shifting their focus from a modern medical science-technocure orientation to a true caring-healing-loving model?
This work, in both its original and evolving forms, seeks to develop caring as an ontological and theoretical-philosophical-ethical framework for the profession and discipline of nursing and clarify its mature relationship and distinct intersection with other health sciences. Nursing caring theory based activities as guides to practice, education and research have developed throughout the USA and other parts of the world. Watson’s work is consistently one of the nursing caring theories used as a guide. Nurses’ reflective-critical practice models are increasingly adhering to caring ethic and ethos.
Because the nature of the use of the caring theory is fluid, dynamic, and undergoing constant change in various settings around the world and locally I am not able to offer updated summaries of activities. Earlier publications seek to provide examples of how the work is used, or has been used in specific settings.
3. Cultivation of sensitivity to self and others.
4. Establishing a Helping-Trust Relationship
5. Expression of Feelings both Positive and Negative
6. Research and Systematic Problem Solving
7. Promotion of Interpersonal Teaching-Learning
8. Provision of a Supportive, Protective, and/or Corrective Mental, Physical, Sociocultural and Spiritual Environment.
9. Assistance with the Gratification of Human Needs
1. Survival needs
(Biophysical Needs)a. Need for food/fluid nourishment
b. Need for elimination
c. Need for ventilation2. Functional needs
(Lower Order Needs – Psychophysical needs)a. Need for activity-inactivity
b. Need for sexuality3. Integrative needs
(Higher Order Needs – Psychophysical Needs)a. Need for achievement
b. Need for affiliation4. Growth Seeking Needs
(Higher Order Needs – Intrapersonal-Interpersonal Needs)a. Need for self-actualization
Watson also defined holistic care based on various studies on emotional distress and illness.
Etiological components have many factors and these interact to produce chance through complex neurophysiological functions and neurochemical pathways
Each psychological function has a physiological correlate
Each physiological function has a psychological correlate.
10. Allowance for Existential Phenomenological Factors
Anonuevo A. Cora,etal (2005). Theoretical Foundations of Nursing. Quezon City. UP Open University Office of Academic Support and Instructional Services